What is a project? IT projects - Types, examples and management

what is A project consists of a set of interrelated activities, with a beginning and an end, that uses limited resources to achieve an objective?


What-is-a-project
What-is-a-project


What is a project?

"A project is a set of interrelated actions aimed at achieving results to transform or improve a situation, within a limited period of time and with budgeted resources"
(Palomar, 2006)
It was born in response to the need to fulfill the objectives of the organizations within its purpose.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A PROJECT

  • It focuses on producing or achieving a good or objective.
  • It is temporary, it has a beginning and an end.
  • There is a clear objective achievable within a limited period of time.
  • It requires a planning process.
  • A set of activities or tasks is identified.
  • It presents a logical succession of activities or phases.
  • It requires the intervention of people and specialists according to the specific needs of each activity.
  • It requires diverse resources necessary to develop the activity.

Elements of a project

THE ACTIVITIES

They are the tasks that must be executed to arrive together for a pre-established purpose ( desired objective ); for example:
  • Gather information
  • Perform diagnostics
  • Make a design
  • Program
  • Write procedure manuals
  • Etc.
The activities in the project have a logical sequence.
Element of a Computer Project
Element of a Computer Project

THE RESOURCES

Are the elements used to perform the execution of each of the tasks; for example:
  • Hardware
  • software
  • Services
  • Capital investment
  • Personal
  • information
  • Money and time
Resources of a project

DIRECT COSTS

Are all those who can be identified in the project and are associated with it, are those that are fixed or variable (materials, labor)

INDIRECT COSTS

They are those that are involved in the project but have relative importance (rents, licenses, services)

FIXED COSTS

Are those costs committed, programmed or planned that are incurred to provide and maintain the operational capacity of the project?

VARIABLE COSTS.

They are those that fluctuate according to the activity of the project.

Types of projects

FOR ITS DEVELOPMENT:

  • Unique projects They are unrepeatable, they begin and end in themselves.
  • Designed to achieve non-repetitive objectives.
  • Continuous projects. They are repetitive
  • Designed to produce or achieve similar objectives

BY EXTENSION:

  • Long term. Periods longer than 3 years.
  • Medium term. Periods between 1 and 3 years
  • Short term. Periods under 1 year.

SERVICES:

  • They are long-term and user-defined
  • They can be quantitative (benefits) and qualitative (quality)

PRODUCTION:

  • They are short term
  • They are usually quantitative (cost, term, performance)

STRATEGIC

  • They are long term
  • It affects the structure of the organization
  • They are qualitative (coverage, integration, image)

Project management

The project management is:
"Articulate the method to achieve a single objective and not repetitive in a term with clear beginning and endusing the techniques provided by the management"

Functions of project management

TO PLAN:

Determine what results the organization must obtain and establish appropriate strategies to carry it out.

ORGANIZE:

It specifies how it achieves the planned results, assigning the tasks identified in the planning to the members and teams of the organization to achieve those objectives.

CONTROL:

Checking the expected results, correcting the deviations detected.

LEAD:

Lead and motivate the members of the organization, so that the objectives set are achieved.

Project life cycle

IT COMPRISES FOUR PHASES:

  • ID
  • Design or elaboration
  • Implementation or execution
  • Evaluation or completion
The process of planning and managing a project can be represented as a cycle. Each phase of the project is related to the next.
Phases of the project

ID

Understand the identification of critical factors or variables according to present problems, needs, demands, and initiatives.
To identify where the project should go, we need to know who should benefit and what their needs are.
The " needs analysis " will provide an overview of the problems. The " capacity analysis " will help identify what is the problem that the project must address.

DESIGN

The project will be defined in direct function of the problems, needs or demands that we detect in our diagnosis.
The structure of the project format obeys the need to organize and guide the actions logically, allowing the evaluator with the most accurate information possible.

Standard format:

  • Title
  • Definition of objectives
  • Grounds or justification
  • Project description
  • Activity matrix
  • Budget.

IMPLEMENTATION

This phase can also be understood as the administration of the project (resources and processes).
It is the ongoing test of the actions stipulated or planned in our planning, it assumes the allocation of the necessary resources.
 During the implementation of the project, it is important to monitor and monitor the progress of the project and any external changes that may affect it.
Project planning should be adjusted where necessary.

EVALUATION.

It is the action that allows us to measure or estimate the degree to which the objectives we have proposed are achieved or not.
It allows us to visualize problems or difficulties and correct the ongoing processes in time.
The evaluation must be carried out after the end of the project. To assess its long-term impact and check if it is sustainable, it can be checked after a few months or years after the project has ended.

Success factors

Projects sometimes fail because they are poorly planned and because they do not take into account some important factors, particularly the needs and points of view of the people concerned.
Project success factors
  • Relevance
  • Viability
  • Sustainable
  • Effectiveness
  • Efficiency

RELEVANCE

It is the degree of attention to the problems of the users.
  • Beneficiaries or clearly defined users.
  • Description of the problems of the users
  • Long and medium term objectives are part of the development plans
  • The results propose a solution to the services and products required

VIABILITY

Understand the possibility of carrying out the project.
  • The logical consistency of the project
  • Are the identified risks acceptable?
  • Institutional and management capacity Is there the capacity to implement the project?
  • The proposed activities are sufficient to achieve the results

SUSTAINABLE

Referred to the continuity of the activities and benefits of the project.
  • Continuity of the support policy of organizations
  • Application of technologies concordant with the environment
  • The capacity of the executing identity to give continuity to the results

EFFECTIVENESS

It is the degree to which the objectives are achieved in the foreseen time and with quality
  • Does the project achieve the intended effect?
  • Does the situation of the target population change?

EFFICIENCY

It is the degree to which the objectives are achieved at the lowest possible cost.
Comparison of the results with the resources used

Source:

what is a project Robert Aldo Velásquez Huerta Mg. Computing and Multimedia

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